Pelvic pain is a common issue that affects many women. In most cases, it occurs during ovulation and periods. However, there are a lot of health issues that can also cause pain and discomfort in the pelvic area. In this article, we have gathered eight gynecological conditions that can cause pelvic pain.

1. Endometriosis

Endometriosis is a condition that occurs when the inner lining of the uterus, which is called the endometrium, starts to grow on the pelvic organs. Due to the fact that this endometrial tissue attaches organs to each other, a woman with endometriosis can experience pelvic pain, pain during sex, severe periods, lower back pain, and many other symptoms. Additionally, women with endometriosis can have problems with getting pregnant.

2. Uterine fibroids

Uterine fibroids are non-cancerous tumors that grow on the uterine walls. In most cases, fibroids develop asymptomatically and many women don’t know that they have them. But in other women, fibroids can cause pelvic pain, lower back pain, vaginal bleeding between periods, etc. Uterine fibroids can range from pea-size to melon-size. If fibroids grow near the fallopian tubes, they can also cause infertility.

3. Ovarian cysts

Ovarian cysts are sacs filled with fluid that develop on the ovaries. They usually appear and disappear asymptomatically throughout the menstrual cycle but in some women, they can cause severe pelvic pain and other symptoms. In some cases, untreated cysts can burst and lead to severe complications so it is better to undergo timely and accurate treatment.

4. Ovarian torsion

Ovarian torsion is a condition in which the ovary twists around itself. The point is that the blood supply to the ovary becomes restricted and without treatment, it can lead to tissue necrosis. The most common symptoms of ovarian torsion include:

  • Severe pelvic pain and cramping
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Tender abdominal area

If you have noticed at least some of these symptoms, you need to visit a doctor immediately to treat ovarian torsion.

5. Sexually transmitted infections

There are a lot of sexually transmitted infections that can affect the female reproductive system. Some of them can develop asymptomatically while others can cause the following symptoms:

  • Pelvic pain
  • Vaginal itching
  • Abnormal vaginal discharge with an unpleasant odor
  • Rashes, bumps, ulcers, blisters, etc.
  • Pain during sex

In the case of the aforementioned symptoms, you and your sexual partner or partners should be tested for STDs and treated if needed.

6. Pelvic inflammatory disease

Pelvic inflammatory disease is a condition that occurs when the pelvic organs become inflamed. This condition occurs when vaginal infections like gonorrhea, chlamydia, or bacterial vaginosis weren’t treated in time. The pelvic inflammatory disease usually manifests itself through severe pelvic pain, fever, abnormal vaginal discharge with a strong odor, pain during sex, vaginal bleeding between periods, and burning sensation during urination.

7. Urinary tract infections

Urinary tract infections (UTI) can affect both men and women. However, they are more common in women since these infections occur when the bacteria from the anus penetrate the urinary tract. In women, the urethra and anus are located closer. Urinary tract infections can cause pelvic pain, cloudy urine, bloody urine, frequent urination, and cramps in the lower abdomen. UTI usually affects the urethra and bladder but it can spread to ureters and kidneys if left untreated.

8. Cancers of the female reproductive system

There are a few types of cancer that can affect the female reproductive system. The most common of them are cervical, ovarian, and endometrial cancer. Vaginal and vulvar cancers are less common. These cancers usually develop asymptomatically in the initial stages.  When cancers of the female reproductive system progress, they can manifest themselves through pelvic pain, pain during sex, abnormal vaginal discharge, and spotting.

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